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agency bullet Romanization Systems

The U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN) (https://www.gov.uk/government/groups/the-permanent-committee-on-geographical-names) jointly develop and/or approve romanization systems and Roman-script spelling conventions for the purpose of establishing standardized Roman-script spellings of those foreign geographical names that are written in non-Roman scripts or in Roman alphabets that contain special letters.

Each romanization system presented below is identified as being a BGN/PCGN system, a BGN/PCGN agreement, or a Table of Correspondences with the date of its joint adoption by the BGN and PCGN indicated in most cases. The tables present the currently approved systems, superseding the publication Romanization Systems and Roman Script Spelling Conventions of 2008. The Introduction from the 2008 publication is available here.

Information on other transliteration systems for geographic names is maintained on the website of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names Working Group on Romanization Systems: http://www.eki.ee/wgrs/.



Romanization System Class Date Approved Originator
Adyghe System 2012 BGN/PCGN
Afghanistan (Unified Agreement) System 2007 BGN/PCGN
Amharic System 1967 BGN/PCGN
Arabic System 1956 BGN/PCGN
Armenian System 1981 BGN/PCGN
Avar System 2011 BGN/PCGN
Azerbaijani Table of Correspondences 2002 Govt of Azerbaijan, 1991
Baluchi System 2008 BGN/PCGN
Bashkir Table of Correspondences 2007 Bashkir practice
Belarusian System 1979 BGN/PCGN
Bulgarian Agreement 2013 Govt of Bulgaria, 2009
Burmese Agreement 1970 Govt of Burma, 1907
Chechen Table of Correspondences 2008 Chechen practice
Chinese Pinyin Agreement 1979 Govt of China, 1958
Chuvash System 2011 BGN/PCGN
Dzongkha Agreement 2010 Govt of Bhutan, 1997
Faroese Roman-Script Spelling Convention 1968 Faroese orthography
Georgian Agreement 2009 Govt of Georgia, 2002
German Roman-Script Spelling Convention 2000 German orthography
Greek Agreement 1996 Hellenic Organization for Standardization
Hebrew Agreement 2018 Hebrew Academy
Icelandic Roman-Script Spelling Convention 1968 Icelandic orthography
Inuktitut Table of Correspondences 2018 Inuit Cultural Institute
Japanese Kana Agreement 2017 J.C. Hepburn, 1867
Kabardian System 2011 BGN/PCGN
Karachay-Balkar Table of Correspondences 2008 Karachay-Balkar practice
Kazakh System 1979 BGN/PCGN
Khmer (Cambodian) Agreement 1972 Service Géographique Khmère (SGK) 1959
Korean (North Korea) Agreement 1945 McCune-Reischauer, 1939
Korean (South Korea) Agreement 2011 Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2000
Kurdish System 2007 BGN/PCGN
Kyrgyz System 1979 BGN/PCGN
Lao Agreement 1966 Lao Commission Nationale de Toponymie (CNT), 1965
Macedonian Agreement 2013 Govt of Macedonia
Maldivian Agreement 1988 Govt of Maldives, 1987
Moldovan Table of Correspondences 2002 Govt of Moldova, 1990
Mongolian Cyrillic System 1964 BGN/PCGN
Nepali Agreement 2011 Nepal Survey Department
Northern Sami Roman-Script Spelling Convention 1984 Northern Sami orthography
Ossetian System 2009 BGN/PCGN
Pashto System 1968 BGN/PCGN
Persian System 1958 BGN/PCGN
Russian System 1947 BGN/PCGN
Rusyn System 2016 BGN/PCGN
Serbian Table of Correspondences 2005 Govt of Serbia
Shan System 2011 BGN/PCGN
Modern Syriac System 2011 BGN/PCGN
Tajik System 1994 BGN/PCGN
Tatar Table of Correspondences 2005 Tatar practice
Thai Agreement 2002 Royal Institute of Thailand, 2000
Tigrinya System 2007 BGN/PCGN
Turkmen Table of Correspondences 2000 Govt of Turkmenistan, 1993
Udmurt System 2011 BGN/PCGN
Ukrainian Agreement 2019 Govt. of Ukraine, 2010
Urdu System 2007 BGN/PCGN
Uzbek Table of Correspondences 2000 Govt of Uzbekistan, 1995
Yakut System 2012 BGN/PCGN

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Document last modified March 19, 2021

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